Defense planning and management is a comprehensive endeavor that encompasses six different areas. There are three core areas: force, resource and weapon systems planning; and three supporting streams: logistics, C4SRI (command, control, communication computer, surveillance, reconnaissance, information) ), and civil emergency. Defense planning relates to other disciplines, such as air and naval technology development, standardization, intelligence, operational planning, and force generation.
Given the current economic constraints arising from the government’s limited budget( Rp 32 trillions or less than 1 % of GDP of Rp 5,220 trillion, and 4,6 % of annual budget of about Rp 780 trillion for fiscal 2008) the underlying theme of Indonesian defense planning for the near and mid-term future is to enhance efficiency by drastically reducing leakages and wastages, especially in the procurement and acquisitions of weapon systems, defense equipment and supplies.
Force planning deals specifically with providing Indonesia with the forces and capabilities of the tri-services to execute their range of missions, in accordance with the Indonesia doctrine of total defence and security (sishankamrata). It seeks to ensure that Indonesia develop sustainable and interoperable forces, which can function even with limited or scarce budgetary resources.
The force planning process is based on three sequential elements: general political guidance, planning targets and defense reviews. Political guidance sets out the overall aims to be met, incorporating President S.B. Yudhoyono’s concept of Minimum Essential Force (MEF) that establishes in military terms the number, scale and nature of operational readiness and force structure that the country as a whole should at a minimum be able to deploy.
Planning targets include both a detailed determination of an integrated tri-service force (Tri-Matra Terpadu) requirements and the setting of implementation targets to fulfill those requirements. Defense reviews provide a means to assess the degree to which planning targets are being met. The term ‘force planning’ is often confused with that of ‘defense planning’, which is much broader (includes non-military defense planning), and that of ‘operational planning’, which is conducted for specific, tactical and command-level military operations, including balancing strike force, support and maintenance/repair capabilities.
National resources comprise human resources, natural resources and man-made resources. National resource planning aims to provide the country with the capabilities it needs, but focuses on the elements that are joined in common funding; each service (Angkatan) pool resources within a nation-wide total defense framework.
Resource planning is closely linked to operational planning, which aims to ensure that the Indonesian Defense Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI) fulfill its present and minimum operational commitments and face new threats such as terrorism and bio-chemical weapons. There is a distinction between joint funding and common funding: joint funding covers activities, managed by the Ministry of Defense (Dephan) and TNI Headquarters (Mabes TNI), such as integrated acquisitions and procurement of common use items.
Common funding involves three different budgets: the civil budget, which covers the running costs of Dephan and Mabes TNI; the military budget, which essentially covers the running costs of TNI’s integrated command structure and the nation-wide communication and air defense networks; and the Defense Acquisitions Program that covers nation-wide procurement requirements for communication systems, air defense systems and networks of naval stations and bases, fuel supplies and command structures. The military budget and the Defense Acquisitions Program support the theatre headquarter elements for the Army, Navy and Air Force. Relatively speaking, these budgets represent a small amount of money, but they are important for the cohesion and the integration of capabilities of the tri-services.
Weapon Systems Planning
Weapon systems planning is one of the main constituting elements of Dephan’s defense planning process. It aims to support the country’s political and economic objectives and focuses on the development of inter-service (but not common-funded) programs. It does this by promoting cost-effective acquisition, co-operative development and graduated increased local production of weapons systems . It also encourages interoperability, and technological and industrial co-operation among the three services and related ministries and government agencies.
Dephan’s mandate is to cooperate closely with the Ministry of State Enterprises (Menneg BUMN) which has legal and financial control over five strategic industries: PT Pindad; PT PAL; PT Dana; PT LEN and PT DI; with the Ministry of Industry and the State Ministry for Science and Technology to prepare a long-term plan for developing defense industries which reduces reliance on foreign suppliers; and with the Ministry of Finance for purposes of fiscal accountability.
Logistics planning is an integral part of defense and operational planning. It aims to identify the different logistics capabilities that need to be acquired by the tri-services included in the Defense Planning Ministerial Guidance, and ensure that these capabilities are available to be used by the Command Units for operations. Logistics planning serves as the basis for the overarching cooperative logistics effort with the aim of improving the integration of national logistics planning processes during peace, crisis and conflict. At the force planning level, logistics planning consists of identification of the different civil and military capabilities that each service agree to acquire and to provide for joint-operations missions. The management of these capabilities in-theatre is then undertaken by Mabes TNI within the framework of the operational planning process.
The effective performance of Indonesia’s political and military functions, requires the widespread utilization of Command, Control, Computer, Communication Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Information (C4SRI) systems, services and facilities, supported by appropriate personnel and agreed doctrine, organizations and procedures. C4SRI systems include communications, information, navigation and identification systems as well as sensor and warning installation systems, designed and operated in a networked and integrated form to meet the needs of the TNI. Individual C4SRI systems may be provided via common funded programs, or by joint-funded co-operative programs.
Co-ordinated C4SRI planning is an essential activity for the achievement of a nation-wide cohesive, cost-effective, interoperable and secure capability which can meet current and projected political and military requirements. It ensures that C4SRI activities conducted under all aspects of defense planning remain coherent throughout the life-cycle of systems and programs, and that end-products and services match real capability requirements.
C3I planning needs to encompass all elements needed for the achievement of capability. Capability does not just come from the provision of materiel (systems) and facilities, but also relies upon the existence of appropriate organization, training, logistics and personnel, and of relevant interoperability. In addition, the achievement of required system capability necessitates the application of a combination of the three core planning disciplines: resource, armaments and force planning. The C4SRI planning process influences and controls the activities of these planning areas to ensure a degree of coherence between them.
Civil Emergency Planning
Civil emergency planning has two basic dimensions: one dimension are the arrangements that are being made at the national level to protect civilian populations against the consequences of war, terrorist attacks, civic unrest and other major incidents or natural disasters. These include operational arrangements, such as disaster response coordination at national level. The other dimension is the planning to ensure that civil resources can be put to systematic and effective use in support of post-emergency strategy. In essence, this deals with the support that the civilian sector (e.g. transport, supply, communications) can give to the military, primarily in terms of civil support to the military in planning and operations, but also in terms of direct civilian support to crisis response operations.
In sum, civil emergency planning aims to coordinate national planning activity to ensure the most effective use of civil resources in collective support of national strategic objectives. It is a national responsibility and civil assets remain under national control at all times. However, national capabilities are harmonized to ensure that jointly developed plans and procedures will work and that necessary assets are readily available.
Selected Related Areas
There are a number of other related issues, which are closely linked to the defense planning process. These include air and naval technology planning, standardization, intelligence, operational planning, and force generation.
In brief, air defense planning enables members to harmonize their national efforts with international planning related to air command and control and air defense weapons. National air defense provides a network of interconnected systems enabling aircraft and tactical weapons to be detected either by maritime and ground-based systems or by interceptor aircraft. The extension of this air defense system with the civilian radar network is currently being considered by Dephan and the Ministry of Transportation (Dephub).
Naval technology planning aims to synchronize available domestic industry and foreign suppliers to ensure that maritime surveillance and defense match mid as well as long term requirements of deterrence as well as effective naval enforcement within and adjacent to Indonesia’s territorial seas.
Standardization is key to increasing the combined operational effectiveness of all military forces. It explores ways of improving cooperation and eliminating duplication in research, development, production, procurement and support of defense systems. Dephan leads in establishing industry standards, platforms and systems that affect production costs of key individual service requirements: e.g. infantry fighting vehicles for the Army, missile fast patrol boats for the Navy, transport aircraft for the Air Force.
Intelligence plays an important role in the defense planning process, in particular with the emergence of multidimensional security challenges such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Improved intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance as well as strategic assessment capacity are essential to ensure maximum warning and preparation time to counter armed and terrorist attacks. Intelligence sets out the requirements for the improved provision, exchange and analysis of political, economic, security and military intelligence, and closer coordination of the intelligence producers.
Successful military operations require the preparation of detailed plans to ensure that all the relevant factors have been carefully anticipated and weighed. The number of such factors is potentially great and includes the size, location, and likely duration of an operation; the necessary command arrangements; the rules under which it will be conducted ; special requirements imposed by the terrain, weather, and the availability (or otherwise) of local government support and the state of the local infrastructure; appraises the intentions and capabilities of adversaries; the need to collaborate with regional and international organizations; possible humanitarian emergency services.
Operational planning allows Dephan and Mabes TNI to prepare both for possible situations and for crisis response operations like those involving interdiction of illegal activities related to maritime security, border area surveillance and enforcement of binding legal agreements. Dephan/Mabes TNI develops, and periodically refines, operational planning processes that produce both advance (or contingency) plans and crisis response plans.
An essential element of this process is the requirement for political control and approval from the chief executive, and, where required by law, in consultation with and the consent of, the Commission for Defense and Foreign Affairs of Parliament (Komisi I, DPR-RI). The planning process needs to be flexible enough to accommodate interactive exchanges of political direction and military advice and to adapt plans to evolving political guidance during a crisis.
Force generation is the process by which Dephan indicate what forces and capabilities they will make available, for what period of time, against a list of requirements that Mabes TNI have elaborated for a particular operation, in the light of an operation plan, or for special needs like deployment or rotations of the Rapid Response Force.
Dephan is seeking to tighten the links between defense planning, operation planning, and force generation so that defense planning will be more rigorously conducted on the basis of likely future operational requirements. On the other, operation planning and force generation will be more fully guided by information on what capabilities are, or are likely in the future to be available. Dephan is also improving the force generation process itself to make it more comprehensive and forward-looking in the light of the country’s archipelagic structure.
Framework for Dephan’s defense planning and management process
In practical terms, there is need to standardize defense planning processes and defense management cycles. Each one of the services often devise individual and independent planning procedures and apply specific management methods unique to its mission. They also contribute differently to the overall aim of providing Dephan with the forces and capabilities to undertake the full range of its missions.
With the differences between the various components of the defense planning process and interrelated management areas, the need for harmonization and coordination is essential. While force planning has provided a basis for this harmonization and coordination, more was required. Dephan has directed the Agency for Research and Development (Balitbang)and Agency for Management Training(Badiklat) agencies to produce a comprehensive political guidance in support of the General Policy for National Defense.
Efforts to enhance and coordinate defense management are not limited to just within Dephan and Mabes TNI. Dephan needs to keep abreast of policy and strategic decisions undertaken by related ministries, especially the ministries for finance, national planning, industry, research and technology, maritime and fisheries, public works, energy and mineral resources.
The overall objective is to effectively and efficiently apply the capability requirements needed by utilizing the full range of human, natural as well as financial resources available to the government and to the nation as a whole.